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Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food production sector in the world. With demand for seafood increasing at astonishing rates, the optimization of production methods is vital. One of the primary restrictions to continued growth is the supply of juveniles from hatcheries. Addressing these constraints, Advances in aquaculture hatchery technology provides a comprehensive, systematic guide to the use of current and emerging technologies in enhancing hatchery production. Part one reviews reproduction and larval rearing. Aquaculture hatchery water supply and treatment systems, principles
The hands-on nature of the hatchery setting is a natural supplement to curriculum units for students of all ages and experience levels. This chapter addresses the benefits of experiential education and provides descriptions of its use for a variety of aquaculture-based learning experiences pertinent to a number of subject areas. Recommendations for implementing such programs are presented for each grade level and discipline. The chapter provides a number of examples and resources to aid the reader in developing or enhancing
For seafood production to meet expected demand from a growing global population, many more millions of tons of seafood will need to be produced. The expectations for increased product from capture fisheries is limited, so this rise in production will have to come from aquaculture, one of the fastest growing food producing sectors in the world. A primary constraint to the continuing growth of aquaculture is the supply of juveniles from hatcheries --
The reliance on wild-caught juvenile tuna is seen as the Achilles heel of tuna ranching industries worldwide and it is widely recognised that closed-cycle hatchery production is essential to sustain the demand for tuna and reduce pressure on wild stocks. The many features that make tuna such a unique group of fish also give rise to the many challenges associated with their culture and despite some forty years of effort, commercial scale hatchery production has yet to be fully realised.
To date, European mussel culture has relied entirely on wild seed from suspended collectors or mussel beds. One problem faced by blue mussel producers is the unpredictability of seed supply, the amounts of wild seed available being extremely variable from year to year. A second problem is that recently spawned mussels cannot be sold due to insufficient meat. Hatcheries can complement wild seed supply. Hatcheries also allow triploid induction that produces non-maturing mussels. In this chapter, the different steps in
Good water quality is of major importance to production results in a hatchery, particularly in those which work more intensively. A low cost water transfer system is also important economically, affecting both investment and running costs. The low cost, however, should not be allowed to compromise the efficacy of the system, leading to operating problems or a lower water quality, for example. This chapter will take a brief look at some important factors in the location of hatcheries, before progressing
Sea cucumber fisheries have existed for centuries, driven primarily by the Chinese markets. In recent decades, overfishing has severely depleted commercial sea cucumber populations worldwide. Consequently, a growing number of countries are becoming interested in developing aquaculture programs. Every year billions of larvae and millions of juveniles are successfully grown in aquaculture facilities and new initiatives are booming. Here we introduce briefly the main species that have so far been successfully cultivated: Apostichopus japonicus, Holothuria scabra and Isostichopus fuscus. We
Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, is considered as a major, aquaculture development both in Vietnam and globally. One of the main drivers responsible for the explosive growth of the sector is considered to be the development and commercialisation of techniques for artificial propagation of the species. This chapter looks first at the life-cycle of the striped catfish and historical developments in hatchery technology before going on to discuss induced breeding of catfish in hatcheries together
Marine fish larvae fed microdiets have not, at this stage, matched the growth and survival performances demonstrated by larvae fed live feeds such as rotifers and Artemia. This chapter discusses the issues related to the use of microdiets as a sole or partial feed for marine fish larvae. The techniques and methods of manufacturing microdiet particles, chemical and physical properties of microdiet particles are described. The use of feeding systems and advantages and disadvantage of the current feeding systems is
Global shrimp farming more than tripled production over the last decade. The major driver of that expansion was the introduction, adoption and expansion of farming P. vannamei as the shrimp species of choice. A key element determining farmers’ preference for P. vannamei was widespread availability of High Health post-larvae (PL) produced from specific pathogen free (SPF) broodstock that outperformed other shrimp species in reliability and profitability. Production of High Health PL requires use of SPF broodstock in hatcheries using biosecurity.
Microalgae remain an indispensible hatchery food for many aquaculture species, despite some on-going progress in the development of formulated larval feeds. The majority of the microalgae feed production occurs as living cultures on-site within hatcheries. In this review, general characteristics of microalgae are discussed, including chemical profiles, nutritional qualities and methods of mass culture. Key microalgal species are identified that are used as feeds leading to the hatchery production of bivalves, abalone, shrimp and fish. Global demand for microalgae production
Yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi; YTK) hatchery technology has been largely developed in New Zealand and Australia where a burgeoning seacage grow-out industry exists. Wild-caught broodstock can be maintained in land-based tanks and induced to spawn using hormone therapy or more commonly will spawn spontaneously within one to two breeding seasons of domestication using phototherm manipulation. The chapter looks at seriola aquaculture, detailing broodstock management and larviculture. Two peaks of mortality have been found to occur – one at 3–4 dph when larvae
Meagre (Argyrosomus regius) have good potential for aquaculture. Culture characteristics include controlled spawning in captivity, relatively easy larval rearing, fast growth, good feed conversion ratios and no maturation during ongrowing. Whilst characteristics of the final product include good processing yield, low fat content, good taste and firm texture. This chapter details the present knowledge on the biology of the species, the culture protocols being used through the entire production cycle (broodstock management, larval rearing, pre-ongrowing and ongrowing), product quality, market
In aquaculture production systems, the hatchery phase is the most challenging as larvae are prone to infections and disease from microbial agents causing mass mortalities. A holistic microbial management regime concept is developed with the hatchery managed as a set of compartments: (1) the water column (planktonic); (2) surfaces (biofilm); (3) the larvae themselves; and (4) feeds (live and formulated). Emphasis on the use of the microbial community as a whole to maintain larvae in high health with various prophylactic strategies is discussed. A
This chapter looks at the issues surrounding health of finfish and shellfish larvae in the aquaculture environment. The chapter will examine issues such as biosecurity to see how it forms the cornerstone of effective hatchery management and how problems can arise when biosecurity fails. Then the chapter looks at how the health of the larvae can be manipulated and how the larvae can be protected from potential pathogens by good management.