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Blinding as a Solution to Bias

Blinding as a Solution to Bias
  • Author : Christopher T Robertson
  • Publsiher : Academic Press
  • Release : 30 January 2016
  • ISBN : 0128026332
  • Pages : 388 pages
  • Rating : 4/5 from 21 ratings
GET THIS BOOKBlinding as a Solution to Bias

Summary:
What information should jurors have during court proceedings to render a just decision? Should politicians know who is donating money to their campaigns? Will scientists draw biased conclusions about drug efficacy when they know more about the patient or study population? The potential for bias in decision-making by physicians, lawyers, politicians, and scientists has been recognized for hundreds of years and drawn attention from media and scholars seeking to understand the role that conflicts of interests and other psychological processes play. However, commonly proposed solutions to biased decision-making, such as transparency (disclosing conflicts) or exclusion (avoiding conflicts) do not directly solve the underlying problem of bias and may have unintended consequences. Robertson and Kesselheim bring together a renowned group of interdisciplinary scholars to consider another way to reduce the risk of biased decision-making: blinding. What are the advantages and limitations of blinding? How can we quantify the biases in unblinded research? Can we develop new ways to blind decision-makers? What are the ethical problems with withholding information from decision-makers in the course of blinding? How can blinding be adapted to legal and scientific procedures and in institutions not previously open to this approach? Fundamentally, these sorts of questions—about who needs to know what—open new doors of inquiry for the design of scientific research studies, regulatory institutions, and courts. The volume surveys the theory, practice, and future of blinding, drawing upon leading authors with a diverse range of methodologies and areas of expertise, including forensic sciences, medicine, law, philosophy, economics, psychology, sociology, and statistics. Introduces readers to the primary policy issue this book seeks to address: biased decision-making. Provides a focus on blinding as a solution to bias, which has applicability in many domains. Traces the development of blinding as a solution to bias, and explores the different ways blinding has been employed. Includes case studies to explore particular uses of blinding for statisticians, radiologists, and fingerprint examiners, and whether the jurors and judges who rely upon them will value and understand blinding.


Blinding as a Solution to Bias

Blinding as a Solution to Bias
  • Author : Christopher T Robertson,Aaron S Kesselheim
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 30 January 2016
GET THIS BOOKBlinding as a Solution to Bias

What information should jurors have during court proceedings to render a just decision? Should politicians know who is donating money to their campaigns? Will scientists draw biased conclusions about drug efficacy when they know more about the patient or study population? The potential for bias in decision-making by physicians, lawyers, politicians, and scientists has been recognized for hundreds of years and drawn attention from media and scholars seeking to understand the role that conflicts of interests and other psychological processes


Bias in the Law

Bias in the Law
  • Author : Joseph Avery,Joel Cooper
  • Publisher : Anonim
  • Release : 28 February 2020
GET THIS BOOKBias in the Law

Racial bias in the U.S. criminal justice system is much debated and discussed, but until now, no single volume has covered the full expanse of the issue. In Bias in the Law, sixteen outstanding experts address the impact of racial bias in the full roster of criminal justice actors. They examine the role of legislators crafting criminal justice legislation, community enforcers, and police, as well as prosecutors, criminal defense attorneys, judges, and jurors. Understanding when and why bias arises,


Fundamentals of Clinical Trials

Fundamentals of Clinical Trials
  • Author : Lawrence M. Friedman,Curt D. Furberg,David L. DeMets
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 09 September 2010
GET THIS BOOKFundamentals of Clinical Trials

The clinical trial is “the most definitive tool for evaluation of the applicability of clinical research.” It represents “a key research activity with the potential to improve the quality of health care and control costs through careful comparison of alternative treatments” [1]. It has been called on many occasions, “the gold st- dard” against which all other clinical research is measured. Although many clinical trials are of high quality, a careful reader of the medical literature will notice that a large


Critical Thinking in Clinical Research

Critical Thinking in Clinical Research
  • Author : Felipe Fregni,Ben M.W. Illigens
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 13 March 2018
GET THIS BOOKCritical Thinking in Clinical Research

One of the most crucial skills a clinician, scientist, or student can learn is to create, conduct, and interpret the conclusions of a clinical study. Critical Thinking in Clinical Research teaches these fundamentals in four distinct sections, called "units": the first unit focuses on issues surrounding the design of a study such as population, question selection, randomization, and blinding; Unit 2 presents statistical methods such as analyzing data collected, how to present and discuss the data concisely; the third unit covers


Joints and Connective Tissues

Joints and Connective Tissues
  • Author : Kerryn Phelps,Craig Hassed
  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 30 October 2012
GET THIS BOOKJoints and Connective Tissues

Joints and Connective Tissues - General Practice: The Integrative Approach Series. In order to diagnose and manage the patient presenting with musculoskeletal symptoms, it is important to distinguish whether the pathology is arising primarily in the so-called hard tissues (such as bone) or the soft tissues (such as cartilage, disc, synovium, capsule, muscle, tendon, tendon sheath). It is also important to distinguish between the two most common causes of musculoskeletal symptoms, namely inflammatory and degenerative.


The Self in Social Judgment

The Self in Social Judgment
  • Author : Mark D. Alicke,David A. Dunning,Joachim Krueger
  • Publisher : Psychology Press
  • Release : 13 May 2013
GET THIS BOOKThe Self in Social Judgment

The volume begins with a historical overview of the self in social judgment and outlines the major issues. Subsequent chapters, all written by leading experts in their respective areas, identify and elaborate four major themes regarding the self in social judgment: · the role of the self as an information source for evaluating others, or what has been called 'social projection' · the assumption of personal superiority as reflected in the pervasive tendency for people to view their characteristics more favorably than


Emergency Medicine

Emergency Medicine
  • Author : Peter Rosen,Roger M. Barkin,Daniel F. Danzl
  • Publisher : Anonim
  • Release : 26 February 1998
GET THIS BOOKEmergency Medicine

This fourth edition text has been revised and updated and includes several new chapters on pregnancy. It also includes: mechanical ventilation; clinical decision making; interhospital transfer; disaster management; lupus and vasculitis, clinical forensics and hyperbaric oxygen.


Midwifery

Midwifery
  • Author : Sally K. Tracy,Carol Thorogood,Jan Pincombe,Sally Pairman
  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 22 July 2011
GET THIS BOOKMidwifery

Midwifery Preparation for Practice 2e is the only text which reflects the historical and socio – political environment in which midwives in Australia and New Zealand practice. In addition, it is the only text which incorporates the philosophy and standards endorsed by New Zealand and Australian Colleges of Midwives while also focusing on the partnership between midwives with women and the woman- centred model of midwifery care. The second edition has built on the existing philosophy and structure of Midwifery: Preparation


Nudging Health

Nudging Health
  • Author : I. Glenn Cohen,Holly Fernandez Lynch,Christopher T. Robertson
  • Publisher : JHU Press
  • Release : 01 December 2016
GET THIS BOOKNudging Health

Behaviorally informed health policy? : patient autonomy, active choosing, and paternalism / Cass R. Sunstein -- Three choice architecture paradigms for healthcare policy / Russell Korobkin -- Can behavioral economics save healthcare reform? / Alan M. Garber -- Seven ways of applying behavioral science to health policy / Michael Hallsworth -- What can PPACA teach us about behavioral law & economics? / David A. Hymen and Thomas S. Ulen -- Bad medicine : does the unique nature of healthcare decisions justify nudges? / Mark D. White -- Nudging and


Randomized Controlled Trials

Randomized Controlled Trials
  • Author : Alehandro R. Jadad,Murray W. Enkin
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 15 April 2008
GET THIS BOOKRandomized Controlled Trials

Randomized controlled trials are one of the most powerful and revolutionary tools of research. This book is a convenient and accessible description of the underlying principles and practice of randomized controlled trials and their role in clinical decision-making. Structured in a jargon-free question-and-answer format, each chapter provides concise and understandable information on a different aspect of randomized controlled trials, from the basics of trial design and terminology to the interpretation of results and their use in driving evidence-based medicine. The



Wiley Encyclopedia of Clinical Trials

Wiley Encyclopedia of Clinical Trials
  • Author : Lisa Marie Sullivan,Joseph Massaro
  • Publisher : Wiley-Interscience
  • Release : 26 February 2021
GET THIS BOOKWiley Encyclopedia of Clinical Trials

Here you'll find more than 500 entries from the world's leading experts in the field on the basic concepts, methodologies, and applications in clinical trials. The range of topics includes: basic statistical concepts, design and analysis of clinical trials, ethics, regulatory issues, and methodologies for clinical data management and analysis


Encyclopedia of Research Design

Encyclopedia of Research Design
  • Author : Neil J. Salkind
  • Publisher : SAGE
  • Release : 22 June 2010
GET THIS BOOKEncyclopedia of Research Design

"Comprising more than 500 entries, the Encyclopedia of Research Design explains how to make decisions about research design, undertake research projects in an ethical manner, interpret and draw valid inferences from data, and evaluate experiment design strategies and results. Two additional features carry this encyclopedia far above other works in the field: bibliographic entries devoted to significant articles in the history of research design and reviews of contemporary tools, such as software and statistical procedures, used to analyze results. It covers


The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making, 2 Volume Set

The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making, 2 Volume Set
  • Author : George Wu
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 16 February 2016
GET THIS BOOKThe Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making, 2 Volume Set

"This two-volume reference is a comprehensive, up-to-date examination of the most important theory, concepts, methodological approaches, and applications in the burgeoning field of judgment and decision making (JDM). Brings together a multi-disciplinary group of contributors from across the social sciences, including psychology, economics, marketing, finance, public policy, sociology, and philosophy Provides accessible, essential information, complete with the latest research and references, for experts and non-experts alike in two volumes Emphasizes the growth of JDM applications with separate chapters devoted to


Wilful Blindness

Wilful Blindness
  • Author : Margaret Heffernan
  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Release : 03 February 2011
GET THIS BOOKWilful Blindness

Fully revised and updated since its first publication in 2011 to encompass further appalling instances of wilful blindness: Grenfell Tower, Carillion, Harvey Weinstein, Windrush and many more ‘Entertaining and compellingly argued’ Sunday Times ‘A tour de force of brilliant insights’ Philip Zimbardo ‘A polemic against the dangers of docility and "groupthink" in every walk of life' Books of the Year, Financial Times ‘Writing in clear, flowing prose, Heffernan draws on psychological and neurological studies and interviews with executives, whistleblowers and white-collar