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Nanotube Superfiber Materials refers to different forms of macroscale materials with unique properties constructed from carbon nanotubes. These materials include nanotube arrays, ribbons, scrolls, yarn, braid, and sheets. Nanotube materials are in the early stage of development and this is the first dedicated book on the subject. Transitioning from molecules to materials is a breakthrough that will positively impact almost all industries and areas of society. Key properties of superfiber materials are high flexibility and fatigue resistance, high energy absorption,
Nanotubes are a unique class of materials because their properties depend not only on their composition but also on their geometry. The diameter, number of walls, length, chirality, van der Waals forces, and quality all affect the properties and performance of nanotubes. This dependence on geometry is what makes scaling-up nanotubes to form bulk material so challenging. Nanotubes are also unusual because they stick together to form bundles or strands. Nanotube superfiber materials are fibrous assemblages of nanotubes and strands.
Nanotube Superfiber Materials: Science, Manufacturing, Commercialization, Second Edition, helps engineers and entrepreneurs understand the science behind the unique properties of nanotube fiber materials, how to efficiency and safely produce them, and how to transition them into commercial products. Each chapter gives an account of the basic science, manufacturing, properties and commercial potential of a specific nanotube material form and its application. New discoveries and technologies are explained, along with experiences in handing-off the improved materials to industry. This book spans
The nature of fiber materials and the differences between conventional fibers and nanoscale fibers are discussed in this chapter. The challenge of carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn fiber fabrication is provided from the perspective of conventional yarn fiber fabrication. Prospects for large-scale manufacturing and the physical properties of yarn are also discussed. This chapter sets the stage for presentation of a compendium of techniques working toward producing superfiber materials.
Individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been reported to have the highest thermal conductivities of any known material. However, significant variability exists both for the reported thermal conductivities of individual CNTs and the thermal conductivities measured for macroscopic CNT assemblies (e.g. CNT films, buckypapers, arrays, and fibers), which range from comparable to metals to aerogel-like. This chapter reviews the current status of the field, summarizing a wide selection of experimental results and drawing conclusions regarding present limitations of the thermal
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been at the frontier of nanotechnology research for the past two decades. The interest in CNTs is due to their unique physical and chemical properties, which surpass those of most other materials. To put CNTs into macroscale applications, the nanotubes can be spun to form continuous fiber materials. Thus far, the properties of the fibers are far below the properties of the individual nanotubes. If the electrical and mechanical properties of the fibers could be improved,
This chapter provides a systematic comparison of band structures, physical properties as well as associated applications between carbon nanotubes and graphene. Both these two carbon-based nanomaterials are composed of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms based on sp2 hybridization and thus share some relevant characteristics. However, they have significantly different electronic states due to their morphological variation in quantum confinement, which is responsible for their different electrical, mechanical, and optical properties. This chapter provides readers some basic knowledge, hints, and insights for
In this chapter, the mechanics of nanotubes, graphene and related fibers are reviewed, with an eye to the limiting case of the design of a space elevator megacable. The effect on the fracture strength of thermodynamically unavoidable atomistic defects with different sizes and shapes is quantified. Brittle fracture is investigated both numerically (with ad hoc hierarchical simulations) and theoretically (with quantized fracture theories) for nanotubes, graphene and related bundles.
Performance and efficiency demands in industrial applications are pushing a need for carbon fibers that can outperform existing technologies. Fibers that incorporate carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance specific mechanical properties are a promising route to addressing this need. Some of the major roadblocks to unlocking the full potential of macroscopic fibers based on CNTs are controlling and optimizing the shear interactions within and between CNTs, geometrical organization of the CNTs, and structural properties of the individual CNTs. Several approaches have
Medical change is coming. Robots and tiny machines built using nanoscale materials are going to fundamentally change engineering at the microscale and medicine will be the first area to benefit. In tiny machine design, copper and iron are replaced with carbon nanotube superfiber wire and magnetic nanocomposite materials. Because of the small size of tiny machines, high magnetic fields can be generated and high-force, high-speed devices can be built. Tiny machines are still in the early stages of being built
Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn, a macroscopic structure of CNTs with many potential applications, has attracted increased attention around the world and across many research areas and industrial fields, including materials science, electronics, medical biology and ecology. Spinning CNTs into yarn based on traditional textile spinning principles has demonstrated the potential in many important applications by producing weavable multifunctionalized yarns. Between 1991 and 2010, new manufacturing methods have enabled the production of pure CNT yarns and CNT-based composite yarns called superfiber suitable for
Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn represents one of the most remarkable macrostructures of CNT with its excellent performance in terms of mechanical and electrical properties. Various synthesis methods have been developed and an increasing number of applications have been reported to date, making yarn production one of the most active fields in current research on nanomaterials. In this chapter, we focus on the direct synthesis of long CNT yarns by chemical vapor deposition, including some discussions of the growth parameters and
Nanostructured materials such as nanotubes exhibit properties significantly different from their bulk counterparts. The effect of the length scale on nanostructure material properties, in general, is briefly discussed. Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are wide-bandgap (Bandgap: ∼5 eV) semiconductor materials with attractive electrical, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. The structure of BNNTs is delineated followed by a description of their main methods of synthesis. Electrical, mechanical, optical, and thermal properties of BNNTs are discussed and contrasted with those of the carbon nanotubes (
Recent developments in the field of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based wet-spun fibers are described in this chapter. Wet spinning essentially enables a wide variety of polymers to be spun into fibers. It has been used to produce composite fibers composed of polymers loaded with CNTs, and even fibers solely composed of CNTs. Fibers obtained by wet-spinning approaches contain highly aligned CNTs making the fibers suitable for use in a variety of textile, cable and composite applications. Exciting results have been
There are two ways to manufacture components and devices, the top-down and bottom-up processes. Each process has its advantages and disadvantages. In our group, the bottom-up process was selected to build up electromagnetic devices using nanoscale materials in a series of steps. The design of a lightweight electric motor is described based on using nanoscale materials. Development of the motor is work in progress and various processes and results are described. There are several potential applications for lightweight sustainable electric