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NETosis 2 The Excitement Continues

NETosis 2  The Excitement Continues
  • Author : Mariana J. Kaplan
  • Publsiher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 28 December 2017
  • ISBN : 2889453790
  • Pages : 123 pages
  • Rating : 5/5 from 1 ratings
GET THIS BOOKNETosis 2 The Excitement Continues

Summary:
NETosis, a form of cell death that manifests by the release of decondensed chromatin to the extracellular space, provides valuable insights into mechanisms and consequences of cellular demise. Because extracellular chromatin can immobilize microbes, the extended nucleohistone network was called a neutrophil extracellular trap (NET), and the process of chromatin release was proposed to serve an innate immune defense function. Extracellular chromatin NETs were initially observed in studies of neutrophils and are most prominent in these types of granulocytes. Subsequent studies showed that other granulocytes and, in a limited way, other cells of the innate immune response may also release nuclear chromatin following certain kinds of stimulation. Variations of NETosis were noted with cells that remain temporarily motile after the release of chromatin. Numerous stimuli for NETosis were discovered, including bacterial breakdown products, inflammatory stimuli, particulate matter, certain crystals, immune complexes and activated thrombocytes. Fundamental explorations into the mechanisms of NETosis observed that neutrophil enzyme activity (PAD4, neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase) and signal transduction pathways contribute to the regulation of NETosis. Histones in NET chromatin become modified by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and cleaved at specific sites by proteases, leading to extensive chromatin externalization. In addition, NETs serve for attachment of bactericidal enzymes including myeloperoxidase, leukocyte proteases, and the cathelicidin LL-37. NETs are decorated with proteases and may thus contribute to tissue destruction. However, the attachment of these enzymes to NET-associated supramolecular structures restricts systemic spread of the proteolytic activity. While the benefit of NETs in an infection appears obvious, NETs also participate as key protagonists in various pathologic states. Therefore, it is essential for NETs to be efficiently cleared; otherwise digestive enzymes may gain access to tissues where inflammation takes place. Persistent NET exposure at sites of inflammation may lead to a further complication: NET antigens may provoke acquired immune responses and, over time, could initiate autoimmune reactions, serve as antigen for nuclear autoantibodies and foster DNA immune complex-related inflammation. Neutrophil products and deiminated proteins comprise an important group of autoantigens in musculoskeletal disorders. Aberrant NET synthesis and/or clearance are often associated with inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Recent evidence also implicates aberrant NET formation in the development of endothelial damage, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Intravital microscopy provides evidence for conditions that induce NETosis in vivo. Furthermore, NETs can easily be detected in synovial fluid and tissue sections of patients with arthritis and gout. NETosis is thus of interest to researchers who investigate innate immune responses, host-pathogen interactions, chronic inflammatory disorders, cell and vascular biology, biochemistry, and autoimmunity. As we enter the second decade of research on NETosis, it is useful and timely to review the mechanisms and pathways of NET formation, their role in bacterial and fungal defense and their importance as inducers of autoimmune responses.


NETosis 2: The Excitement Continues

NETosis 2: The Excitement Continues
  • Author : Mariana J. Kaplan,Marko Radic,Martin Herrmann
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 28 December 2017
GET THIS BOOKNETosis 2: The Excitement Continues

NETosis, a form of cell death that manifests by the release of decondensed chromatin to the extracellular space, provides valuable insights into mechanisms and consequences of cellular demise. Because extracellular chromatin can immobilize microbes, the extended nucleohistone network was called a neutrophil extracellular trap (NET), and the process of chromatin release was proposed to serve an innate immune defense function. Extracellular chromatin NETs were initially observed in studies of neutrophils and are most prominent in these types of granulocytes. Subsequent

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NETosis: At the Intersection of Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Immunology

NETosis: At the Intersection of Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Immunology
  • Author : Mariana J. Kaplan,Marko Radic
  • Publisher : Frontiers E-books
  • Release : 08 August 2013
GET THIS BOOKNETosis: At the Intersection of Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Immunology

NETosis is a unique form of cell death that is characterized by the release of decondensed chromatin and granular contents to the extracellular space. The initial observation of NETosis placed the process within the context of the innate immune response to infections. Neutrophils, the most numerous leukocytes that arrive quickly at the site of an infection, were the first cell type shown to undergo extracellular trap formation. However, subsequent studies showed that other granulocytes are also capable of releasing nuclear

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NETosis

NETosis
  • Author : Geeta Rai
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 01 June 2019
GET THIS BOOKNETosis

NETosis: Immunity, Pathogenesis and Therapeutics takes a focused approach to the clinical aspects of NETosis and drug development, bringing critical findings. Chapters introduce NETosis, consider mechanisms and antimicrobial strategies regulating NETosis, examine NETosis in neonates, explore the role of NETosis in autoimmunity, delve into NETosis and other diseases, and present therapeutic approaches for dysregulated NETosis. Since Brinkamm, et al, discovered an unrecognized neutrophil anti-microbial mechanism responsible for the extracellular killing of invading pathogens in 2004, the novel process in which nuclear

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Canine Neutrophils and Platelets in Sepsis

Canine Neutrophils and Platelets in Sepsis
  • Author : Ronald H. L. Li
  • Publisher : Anonim
  • Release : 27 October 2021
GET THIS BOOKCanine Neutrophils and Platelets in Sepsis

Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of death due to critical illness in human and veterinary medicine. Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) decorated with histones and antimicrobial proteins. Platelets function as a primary effector cell of hemostasis, serving as innate immune cells in mice and humans by recognizing pathogens and interacting with neutrophils to induce NET formation (NETosis). Although NETs have protective roles in the initial stages of sepsis, excessive NET formation can

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Promyelocyte HL-60 Cell-line Demonstrates the Involvement of NETosis-Related Proteins in Neutrophil Nuclear Morphology Dynamics

Neutrophils are characterized by a unique nuclear morphology, where the nucleus possesses a segmented multi-lobed form. During inflammation, neutrophils become activated and utilize their anti-microbial abilities. Neutrophil activation and extracellular trap formation are associated with the cell undergoing a change in nuclear morphology via delobing of the nucleus. While much work has been done concerning which parts of the activation pathway are required for NETosis, little is known about which portions of the activation pathway are involved with these morphology

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Physical Phenotyping of Neutrophil NETosis Using Fluorescence-Imaging Deformability Cytometry

Physical Phenotyping of Neutrophil NETosis Using Fluorescence-Imaging Deformability Cytometry
  • Author : Hector Enrique Munoz
  • Publisher : Anonim
  • Release : 27 October 2021
GET THIS BOOKPhysical Phenotyping of Neutrophil NETosis Using Fluorescence-Imaging Deformability Cytometry

The cell mechanical phenotype is a useful measure to understand cell identity and state. Cell mechanical properties such as deformability can provide an understanding of cellular processes or intracellular composition without direct labeling. The cell nucleus is a significant component of the cell and it is useful to understand how it impacts cell deformability. However, high throughput methods to measure cell deformability largely cannot directly integrate nuclear information. Here we present fluorescent imaging deformability cytometry (FI-DC), a high throughput platform

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Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Human Diseases

Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Human Diseases
  • Author : Walter Gottlieb Land
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 09 October 2018
GET THIS BOOKDamage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Human Diseases

This book presents current understanding of the importance of modern immunology in the etiopathogenesis of human diseases and explores how this understanding is impacting on diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prophylaxis. As the core of modern immunology, the “danger/injury model” is introduced and addressed throughout the book. Volume I of the book describes the network of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) and examines the central role of DAMPs in cellular stress responses and associated regulated cell death, the promotion and

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Bacterial Virulence

Bacterial Virulence
  • Author : Philippe Sansonetti
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 05 April 2010
GET THIS BOOKBacterial Virulence

Starting with basic principles, this reference and handbook discusses examples of the most advanced models of bacterial infection with regard to their value as paradigms to understand the molecular cross-talks between microbes and their host and tissue targets. It adopts a very forward-looking, advanced approach, placing special emphasis on the main global challenges facing scientists today, such as pathogenicity vs. commensalisms, infections in immunocompromised hosts and species specificity issues.

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NETosis-derived Effector Mechanisms Against Neospora Caninum and New Insights of Seroprevalances in Caprine and Canine Neosporosis


Role of Neutrophils in Disease Pathogenesis

Role of Neutrophils in Disease Pathogenesis
  • Author : Maitham Khajah
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 07 June 2017
GET THIS BOOKRole of Neutrophils in Disease Pathogenesis

This book highlights the important role of neutrophils in health as well as in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Section 1 provides a general background information regarding the mechanisms and various triggers of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation and their role in various infectious and noninfectious diseases (such as postinjury inflammation). Section 2 provides recent evidence regarding the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis as well as a therapeutic target for selected disease conditions such as periodontal diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and cystic

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